Anniversaries

To illustrate the depth one can access in our collections, we have compiled relevant archival imagery to frame a diverse cultural, political and chronological retrospective of noteworthy anniversaries. Be sure to bookmark this section as the calendar is a work in progress and will continue to expand.

OctoberYearAnniversaryEvent
11847167thAnne Besant, British educator and politician, is born.
11907107thThe financial Panic of 1907 pushes President Roosevelt to ask his former enemy J. P. Morgan for help.
2196747thThurgood Marshall is sworn in as Supreme Court justice, becoming the first African American on the U.S. Supreme Court.
2196747thAir strikes against North Vietnam continue despite disagreements in Congress and in Pres. Johnson's cabinet.
31862152ndUnder Gen. Van Dorn, the Confederates fail to recapture Corinth, a key rail center, when Rosecrans hands them a devastating defeat.
3195262ndBritain tests its first atom bomb, off the coast of Australia.
41777237thGen. Washington attacks Sir Howe's troops at Germantown, 5 miles north of the British-occupied capital, Philadelphia.
41822192ndRutherford B. Hayes, future U.S. president, is born in Delaware, Ohio.
41862152ndEdward Stratemeyer, creator of the Hardy Boys, Bobbsey Twins, Nancy Drew, and other standardized book series, born.
51877137thNez Perce Chief Joseph surrenders to Gen. Miles, saying "My heart is sick and sad… I will fight no more forever."
51882132ndRobert Goddard, pioneering U.S. rocket scientist, is born.
51892122ndThe Dalton Gang attempts their last robbery, in their hometown of Coffeyville, Kansas, and all but one of them are killed.
5194767thHarry Truman makes the first presidential speech on TV, asking Americans to eat no meat on Tuesdays and no poultry on Sundays.
61777237thThe British capture Forts Montgomery and Clinton, but the Patriots block them from rescuing Cornwallis at the Battle of Saratoga.
61892122ndAlfred Tennyson, British poet, is born.
6191797thFannie Lou Hamer, courageous civil rights activist and delegate to the 1964 Democratic Convention, born.
71777237thAt Bemis Heights, the second Battle of Saratoga, Patriot Generals Lincoln and Arnold rout the British during the Revolutionary War.
71897117thElijah Muhammad, American black nationalist and U.S. leader of the Black Muslim movement, is born in Georgia.
81862152ndAt the Battle of Perryville Union Gen. Buell halts Gen. Bragg and the Confederate invasion of Kentucky.
81862152ndOtto von Bismarck becomes chancellor of the German republic.
91547467thMiguel de Cervantes, Spanish novelist and author of "Don Quixote de la Mancha," is baptized in Spain.
91812202ndOn Lake Erie, U.S. forces captures two British ships, the Detroit and the Caledonia, in the War of 1812.
9198727thClare Booth Luce, U.S. politician, playwright and journalist, dies.
101837177thRobert Gould Shaw, colonel of the African-American 54th Massachusetts (who will die at Fort Wagner), is born.
101862152ndConfederate Pres. Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee send John Magruder to take over the Trans-Mississippi Department in Texas.
101877137thThe funeral of George Custer, who died when he attacked the Dakota Indians at Little Big Horn, is held at West Point.
10195757thEisenhower apologizes to Ghanian finance minister K. A. Gbedemah, who was refused service in a Delaware restaurant.
111862152ndDaring raider J. E. B. Stuart - gathering intelligence on McClellan - seizes horses, supplies and local officials in Chambersburg, PA.
111872142ndJudge Harlan Fisk Stone, chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, is born.
11200212ndFormer U.S. president Jimmy Carter wins the Nobel Peace Prize for his diplomacy in the Middle East during the 1970s.
121492522ndChristopher Columbus reaches the Bahama Islands, believing he has found Asia.
121537477thThe son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, England's King Edward VI (who later beheaded his cousin Lady Jane Grey) is born.
121837177thCongress sanctions the use of Treasury notes but fails to calm the Panic of 1837, triggered when the Second Bank was dissolved.
12196252ndSecretary of State Rusk criticizes Congress for backing peace efforts and insists the U.S. continue the bombing of North Vietnam.
131307707thIn France, the Knights of Templar (Masons) are arrested, imprisoned, and tortured by order of King Philip the Fair.
131792222ndPres. Washington lays the cornerstone of the White House, but John Adams will be the first president to live in it.
141822192ndFrench writer Victor Hugo marries his childhood sweetheart, Adele Foucher, despite the objections of his mother and brother
141912102ndCampaigning for president, Teddy Roosevelt is shot, but papers in his breast pocket stop the bullet and he gives his speech.
14196252ndReconnaissance photos taken by an American U-2 spy plane reveal the presence of Soviet missile bases in Cuba.
151872142ndEdith Bolling Galt Wilson, U.S. First Lady, is born.
16196252ndPres. Kennedy learns of missile bases in Cuba, which will bring the US and USSR to the brink of nuclear war
171777237thIn the turning point of the Revolutionary War, British forces surrender to Patriot troops in Saratoga, New York.
181867147thAt a cost of $7.2 million, the U.S. takes possession of Alaska from Russia.
18198232ndFormer First Lady Bess Truman dies in Independence, Missouri.
191512502ndIn Germany, Martin Luther receives his doctorate in theology.
191882132ndExplorer Henry Morton Stanley meets Pierre de Brazza, against whom he races to colonize the Congo in "the Scramble for Africa."
191907107thBankers work through the night at J. P. Morgan's New York City home to stabilize the Panic of 1907.
201822192ndThomas Hughes, British writer, lawyer, politician and social reformer, is born.
211772242ndSamuel Taylor Coleridge, British poet of the Romantic movement, is born.
211797217thThe U.S. Navy frigate Constitution ("Old Ironsides" in the War of 1812), built to fight Barbary pirates, is launched in Boston's harbor.
211867147thKiowa and Comanche chiefs sign the first Medicine Lodge Treaty under the watchful eye of the U.S. generals and politicians present.
21191797thThe first U.S. troops to see action in World War I are assigned to the trenches in France.
21195757thThe Elvis Presley film "Jailhouse Rock" opens.
21195757thPres. Eisenhower decides to go on a speaking tour to bolster confidence and optimism about the U.S. economy.
21196747thSome 100,000 Vietnam War protestors rally at the Lincoln Memorial, then march to and besiege the Pentagon.
22196252ndDuring the Cuban Missile Crisis, Pres. Kennedy announces an air and naval blockade of Cuba.
231777237thA British fleet, trying to reach British-occupied Philadelphia, is held off by Patriot artillery at Fort Mifflin.
23196252ndThe U.S. Defense Department releases photos showing Soviet ships on their way to Cuba.
23197242ndUnder Nixon, Americans negotiating peace with North Vietnam ask for further talks in hopes of calming South Vietnam's fears.
241537477thHenry VIII's third wife, Jane Seymour, dies 12 days after giving birth to Henry's first son, Prince Edward.
241862152ndLincoln orders Gen. Rosecrans to replace Gen. Buell, because of Buell's ineffective pursuit of Gen. Bragg after Perryville.
24196252ndU.S. military forces prepare for war with Cuba and the Soviet Union by going to DEFCON2, a very high military alert.
251912102ndRichard Strauss's opera "Ariadne auf Naxos" is performed for the first time, at the Vienna State Opera in Austria.
25196252ndAt the United Nations, U.S. Ambassador Adlai Stevenson shows photos of Soviet missiles installed in Cuba.
25197242ndPres. Nixon temporarily halts bombing over North Vietnam to show his approval of its concessions during secret talks in Paris.
261902112ndElizabeth Cady Stanton, U.S. suffragette, dies.
26196252ndKruschchev indicates he'll dismantle Cuban missile bases and Castro will refuse more weapons if the U.S. promises not to invade Cuba.
271682332ndPhiladelphia is founded by William Penn, who designs it to resemble a rural English town rather than a city (but to no avail).
271787227thThe first of the "Federalist Papers" by Hamilton, Madison and Jay, calling for ratification of the Constitution, is published in New York.
27196252ndDuring the Cuban Missile Crisis, Khrushchev offers to remove his Cuban bases if JFK removes U.S. bases from Turkey.
281492522ndChristopher Columbus lands in Cuba.
28192292ndWith the so-called "March on Rome," Fascist leader Benito Mussolini takes control of Italy's government.
28196252ndThe Cuban Missile Crisis ends when Khrushchev announces he intends to remove all Soviet offensive weapons from Cuba.
291682332ndWilliam Penn, founder of Pennsylvania, lands at the place that became Chester, Pennsylvania.
291787227thMozart's opera "Don Giovanni" is first performed, in Prague.
29192292ndMussolini becomes the youngest prime minister in Italian history, at age 39, and institutes fascism throughout Italy.
29194767thFormer First Lady Frances Folsom Cleveland, who when Cleveland was 49 and she was his 21-year-old ward, dies at age 83.
301862152ndOrmsby MacKnight Mitchel, renowned astronomer who became a Union major general, dies of yellow fever during the Civil War.
301912102ndJames S. Sherman, banker and politician who became Taft's vice president, dies.
311517497thMartin Luther posts his "95 Theses" on the door of the Wittenberg Palace church, triggering the Protestant Reformation.
311897117thChiang Kai-Shek, Chinese Nationalist, first constitutionally elected president of the Chinese Republic, is born.
311912102ndThe world's first gangster film, "Musketeers of Pig Alley" by Anita Loos and D. W. Griffith (shot with actual gang members), opens.