To illustrate the depth one can access in our collections, we have compiled relevant archival imagery to frame a diverse cultural, political and chronological retrospective of noteworthy anniversaries. Be sure to bookmark this section as the calendar is a work in progress and will continue to expand.

11862153rdTen weeks after his Emancipation Proclamation, Lincoln's State of the Union Address advocates moderation in slavery policy.
1197144thThe war in Cambodia worsens, as Cambodian troops lock in a doomed fight with the Khmer Rouge and their North Vietnamese allies.
2191798thLed by Vladimir Lenin, the Bolsheviks arrange an armistice with the Central Powers and withdraw from war.
21881134thPauline Canissa, a U.S. opera singer, attempts to sing at a benefit in honor of the late Pres. Garfield, but breaks down
2196154thFidel Castro announces he is a Marxist-Leninist and will lead Cuba to Communism.
21892123rdJay Gould, unscrupulous U.S. financier who joined Daniel Drew to fight with Cornelius Vanderbilt over the railroads, dies.
31776239thGeorge Washington arrives at the banks of the Delaware River during the Revolutionary War.
31826189thBirth of George McClellan, Union general whom Lincoln promoted to Commander in Chief and then soon demoted
41861154thLillian Russell (Helen Louise Leonard), American vocalist and actress, is born.
41892123rdFrancisco Franco, Spanish dictator, is born.
4194273rdFDR orders that the Works Progress Administration - which provided jobs during the Depression - be dismantled.
41816199thJames Monroe becomes the 5th president of the United States.
51831184thJohn Quincy Adams, former U.S. president, becomes a member of the House of Representatives.
51791224thWolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer, dies.
51876139thPresident Ulysses S. Grant apologizes to Congress for mistakes he made while president.
51792223rdGeorge Washington is re-elected president and John Adams is re-elected vice president.
51782233rdMartin Van Buren, 8th U.S. president and first president born in the United States as a citizen, is born.
6191798thThe Bolsheviks imprison Czar Nicholas II and his family in Tobolsk.
6194174thA day before Pearl Harbor, Pres. Franklin Roosevelt asks Hirohito to "prevent further death and destruction," but to no avail.
61492523rdChristopher Columbus lands on the island of Santo Domingo.
61877138thEdison makes his first sound recording, "Mary Had a Little Lamb," on his newest invention, the phonograph.
7191699thDavid Lloyd George becomes prime minister of Britain.
71796219thJohn Adams is elected the second U.S. president.
71862153rdAt Prairie Grove, AR, Union Gen. Herron's swift march with 7,000 troops helps Gen. James Blunt hold off Conf. Gen. Hindman.
7198728thSoviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev arrives in the U.S. for a summit meeting with Reagan.
71836179thMartin Van Buren is elected the eighth president of the U.S.
7194174thJapan attacks the U.S. Pacific fleet home base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.
81542473rdMary Stuart, Queen of Scots, is born on this day.
81886129thThe American Federation of Labor or AFL is born in Columbus, Ohio.
8194174thThe U.S. enters World War II, as Congress declares war on Japan.
81776239thGeneral Washington retreats across the Delaware River, from New Jersey to Pennsylvania, to flee the British
8198728thGorbachev and Reagan sign the first treaty between two world powers to reduce their arsenals of nuclear weapons.
91847168thGeorge Grossmith, English actor, is born.
9198233rdLeon Jaworski, special prosecutor in the Watergate scandal, dies.
91621394thThe first sermon in New England is delivered at Plymouth, Massachusetts.
91641374thAnthony Van Dyck, Flemish painter, is born today.
91861154thThe Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War forms to monitor Lincoln's Administration after the Battle of Ball's Bluff.
91862153rdCaptured Confederate officer Benjamin Carter is incarcerated in Rock Island Union Army Prison, in Illinois.
10200213rdFormer president Jimmy Carter accepts the Nobel Peace Prize for his diplomatic efforts in the Middle East during the 1970s.
101906109thPres. Theodore Roosevelt is the first American to win the Nobel Peace Prize, for his mediation efforts in the Russo-Japanese War.
10193184thJane Addams is the first U.S. woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her work with the poor.
10191798thThe International Red Cross, founded in 1863 by Henri Dunant of Switzerland, receives the Nobel Peace Prize.
101872143rdP. B. S. Pinchback of Louisiana becomes the first African American governor of a U.S. state.
101817198thMississippi is admitted as the 20th state in the Union.
11194174thGermany and Italy declare war on the U.S.
111781234thSir David Brewster, Scottish physicist, inventor, and writer, is born.
111862153rdThe Union Army occupies Fredericksburg, Virginia.
111872143rdBuffalo Bill Cody makes his first stage appearance.
111777238thThe British delay General George Washington's march to his winter camp in Valley Forge.
111792223rdLouis XVI goes before the revolutionary Convention to face charges of treason.
11196154thPres. Kennedy orders helicopter crewmen to South Vietnam to provide training for South Vietnamese forces.
121896119thGuglielmo Marconi, Italian physicist, gives the world's first public demonstration of radio in London.
121806209thStand Watie, Cherokee chief and Confederate general of the Cherokee Cavalry, is born.
121901114thNobel-prize winner Guglielmo Marconi sends the first wireless signal, from Great Britain to Newfoundland.
12194768thThe United Mine Workers Union withdraws from the American Federation of Labor.
131776239thGen. Charles Lee, fond of women and wine, abandons his Patriot troops to go to Widow White's tavern in New Jersey
13199124thNorth Korea and South Korea sign a peace treaty, ending the Korean War, 38 years after the fighting stopped.
131862153rdLee's vastly outnumbered Confederate troops defeat Burnside from their position on Marye's Heights at the battle of Fredericksburg.
141897118thPolitician Margaret Chase Smith, first U.S. woman elected to both the House of Representatives and the Senate, born.
14196154thPres. Kennedy steps up U.S. involvement with South Vietnam.
141861154thPrince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria, dies in London.
151791224thThe Bill of Rights goes into effect when it is ratified by Virginia on this day
151831184thFranklin Sanborn, U.S. social reformer, abolitionist, and journalist, is born.
15191699thThe French defeat the Germans at the Battle of Verdun, in WWI
15196154thNazi official Adolf Eichmann is sentenced to death by an Israeli court.
151832183rdAlexandre Gustave Eiffel, French engineer who designed the Eiffel Tower in Paris, is born.
16196154thYoung Pres. Kennedy begins his South American tour to enthusiastic cheers in Caracas, Venezuela.
17199124thBoris Yeltsin's supporters declare the Soviet Union will cease to exist.
171797218thJoseph Henry, eminent U.S. physicist and first secretary of the Smithsonian Institute, born.
171807208thJohn Greenleaf Whittier, U.S. poet and abolitionist, founder of the Liberal Party, born.
171862153rdUlysses S. Grant expels the Jews from his Department when he learns that friends of his father's are cotton speculators.
181892123rdTchaikovsky's "Nutcracker Ballet" is first performed, by the Russian Imperial Ballet.
18195659thJapan is admitted to the United Nations.
181886129thThe Battle of Verdun, in France, ends.
181886129thTy Cobb, U.S. baseball star and first man elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame, is born.
181862153rdAt the Battle of Lexington, Nathan Forrest, ordered by Bragg to cut Union supplies, routs Robert Ingersoll's forces in Union territory.
19194174thHitler takes charge of the German army.
191842173rdHawaii's sovereign independence is recognized by the U.S.
191817198thJames J. Archer, Confederate brigadier general captured at Gettysburg and imprisoned on Johnson's Island, Ohio, is born
191777238thGen. Washington leads his army of 11,000 to Valley Forge for the winter, during which nearly 3,000 troops die.
191732283rdBenjamin Franklin begins publishing "Poor Richard's Almanack."
191776239thAnglo-American political theorist Thomas Paine publishes "American Crisis", which says: "These are the times that try men's souls."
201862153rdIn a raid on Holly Springs, MS, Van Dorn attacks Union supply lines in order to thwart Grant's efforts to capture Vicksburg.
201881134thBranch Rickey, the U.S. baseball executive who will hire the first black players, is born.
211811204thArchibald Campbell Tait, Archbishop of Canterbury, is born.
211861154thPresident Lincoln signs into law a Navy medal, the Medal of Valor.
211861154thThe Trent Affair escalates during the Civil War and England nearly goes to war with the U.S.
221807208thJefferson's Embargo Act, designed to force peace between Britain and France as well as keep the US out of their war, is passed.
22194174thBritish Prime Minister Churchill arrives in Washington to confer with Pres. Franklin Roosevelt at the Arcadia Conference.
23192194thPres. Warren Harding frees socialist Eugene Debs and other political prisoners.
231862153rdConfederate president Jefferson Davis declares Union Gen. Butler a felon for harassing the women of New Orleans.
24197243rdComedian Bob Hope gives his last show to entertain U.S. troops in Vietnam.
241822193rdMatthew Arnold, British poet and essayist, born.
241871144thGiuseppe Verdi's opera "Aida" premieres in Cairo, Egypt, for the opening of the Suez Canal.
241851164thThe Library of Congress is ravaged by fire, two thirds of its collection destroyed.
251821194thClara Barton, founder of the American Red Cross, is born in Oxford, Massachusetts.
25199124thSoviet President Mikhail Gorbachev announces his resignation.
25192689thHirohito becomes emperor of Japan.
251776239thGeneral Washington and his troops crossed the Delaware River to surprise the Hessian forces in New Jersey.
253361679thThe first known Christmas celebrated on Dec. 25, in Rome, is set on the birthday of the sun god, Mithras.
251862153rdLt. Elisha Rhodes, one of the most famous Civil War diarists, writes in his journal, "I should like to be home this Christmas night."
25197738thCharlie Chaplin, English-born comedian, actor, director and producer, dies at age 88.
261791224thCharles Babbage, British mathematician and inventor, born.
26194174thWinston Churchill is the first British prime minister to address the U.S. Congress.
26197243rdHarry S. Truman, 33rd U.S. president, dies.
261837178thAdmiral George Dewey, U.S. naval commander, is born.
261776239thThe British suffer a major defeat at the Battle of Trenton during the Revolutionary War.
261492523rdColumbus establishes the first Spanish settlement in the Americas, on the island of Haiti.
261861154thMason and Slidell are freed from their Boston jail, in exchange for Union prisoners of war, in the Trent Affair
271822193rdLouis Pasteur, French scientist who developed pasteurization as well as a rabies vaccination, is born.
271831184thNaturalist Charles Darwin sets out from England for a 5-year survey of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans aboard the HMS Beagle.
281856159thWoodrow Wilson, 28th president of the U.S., is born in Staunton, VA.
281832183rdJohn Calhoun becomes the first US vice president to resign, due to differences with Pres. Andrew Jackson.
291837178thCanadian militiamen destroy the Caroline, a US steamboat docked at Buffalo, NY.
29198629thFormer British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan dies at age 92.
291851164thThe first U.S. branch of the YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association) is established in Boston.
291607408thChief Powhatan spares John Smith's life because of the pleas of his daughter, Pocahontas.
291862153rdAt Chickasaw Bluffs, 6,000 Confederates defeat 37,000 Union troops, thwarting Union Gen. Sherman's attempt to take Vicksburg.
30192293rdLenin proclaims the establishment of the USSR.
301862153rdThe Union ironclad USS Monitor sinks off Cape Hatteras.
30191699thGrigory Rasputin, Russian mystic and favorite of Czar Nicholas II, is murdered by a group of Russian nobles.
301816199thPoet Percy Bysshe Shelley and novelist Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin marry
311897118thBrooklyn's last day as a separate entity from New York City, before becoming a borough.
31194669thPresident Harry S. Truman declares World War II officially over.
31196154thAmerica's Marshall Plan ends, after distributing more than $12 billion in foreign aid since 1948.
311781234thAmerica's first modern bank, the Bank of North America, opens in Philadelphia, as conceptualized by Robert Morris
311862153rdAt the Battle of Stones River, Rosecrans and Bragg begin a fight in the bitter cold that will last 3 days before a Union victory.
311862153rdAt Parker's Crossroads, Nathan Forrest barely escapes capture but his raid forces Grant to give up on capturing Vicksburg.