Anniversaries

To illustrate the depth one can access in our collections, we have compiled relevant archival imagery to frame a diverse cultural, political and chronological retrospective of noteworthy anniversaries. Be sure to bookmark this section as the calendar is a work in progress and will continue to expand.

JulyYearAnniversaryEvent
11847168thThe U.S. Post Office issues its first stamps.
11862153rdAt the Battle of Malvern Hill, the last of the Seven Days' battles, Union artillery repulses Confederate attackers
11862153rdThe Union gunboats Galena, Monitor, and Mahaska shell the Confederates at Harrison's Landing, on the James River.
11862153rdThe Bureau of Internal Revenue is established by Congress.
11867148thCanada wins its independence and becomes a "self-governing dominion" of Great Britain.
1199718thHong Kong reverts to Chinese rule after 156 years as a British colony.
21777238thVermont becomes the first U.S. colony to abolish slavery, nearly 100 years before the federal government.
21857158thNew York City's first elevated railroad begins operation
21887128th"Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper" welcomes immigrants to "The Land of Freedom."
2194768thThe Soviet Union rejects help from the Marshall Plan.
2197243rd"The New York Times" admires Pres. Nixon for his trips to the Soviet Union and China
2199223rdThe Chevrolet company celebrates the sale of one million Corvettes.
3195758thNikita Khruschev takes control in the Soviet Union after years of jockeying for power.
3196253rdJackie Robinson becomes the first African-American to be inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.
41802213rdThe new U.S. Military Academy opens at West Point, New York.
41817198thConstruction begins on the Erie Canal, which will connect the Hudson River with Lake Erie.
41832183rd"America" ("My Country 'Tis of Thee"), by Samuel F. Smith, is sung in public for the first time, on the 4th of July at Boston's Park St. Church.
41872143rdCalvin Coolidge, 30th president of the United States, is born in Plymouth, Vermont.
51797218thGeorge Washington writes a letter to help Lund Washington secure passage for two sheep on a sailing vessel.
51902113rdHenry Cabot Lodge, U.S. politician and diplomat, is born.
61832183rdMaximilian, an Austrian archduke who will become Emperor of Mexico, is born in Vienna.
61862153rdSamuel Clemens begins as a reporter in Virginia City, Nevada, using the name "Mark Twain."
61892123rdAt the Homestead Steel Company, owned by Andrew Carnegie, 300 Pinkerton detectives clash with striking workers.
81777238thVermont is the first American colony to abolish slavery.
81822193rdPercy Bysshe Shelley, a British Romantic poet and husband of writer Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, dies.
8192293rdYoung Louis Armstrong leaves the Jim Crow laws of New Orleans, his hometown, to head north to Chicago.
8193283rdThe U.S. stock market falls to its lowest point during the Depression
91777238thNew York State elects Revolutionary War Gen. George Clinton (uncle of Dewitt Clinton) to be its first governor.
91877138thWimbledon's "All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club" organizes the first Wimbledon tennis tournament.
91892123rdA showdown between steel workers and 7,000 Pennsylvania troops turns violent at the Homestead Steel plant, owned by Andrew Carnegie.
9194768thEisenhower makes a female soldier a lieutenant colonel and the first woman to hold permanent military rank in the U.S.
101832183rdPres. Andrew Jackson vetoes legislation to renew the charter of the nation's corrupt Second Bank.
101867148thFinley Peter Dunne, journalist and satirist who created the Mr. Dooley columns, is born.
111767248thJohn Quincy Adams, 6th president of the U.S., is born in Braintree (now Quincy), Massachusetts.
111782233rdThe British evacuate Savannah, Georgia, to flee to Charleston, following Lord Cornwallis's surrender to George Washington at Yorktown, VA.
11193778thGeorge Gershwin, a U.S. composer of popular music, dies.
11197738thDr. Martin Luther King, Jr., is posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, for his efforts for civil rights.
121817198thHenry David Thoreau, U.S. essayist and philosopher, is born.
121862153rdDuring the Civil War, Congress authorizes the Medal of Honor for wartime service.
121912103rdThe first foreign film in the U.S., "Queen Elizabeth," starring Sarah Bernhardt, premieres.
131787228thCongress enacts the Northwest Ordinance to create a policy for settling the Northwest Territory, as proposed by Thomas Jefferson 3 years prior.
131837178thQueen Victoria, only eighteen years old, is the first British sovereign to move into London's Buckingham Palace.
131862153rdUnion General Crittenden and his garrison are captured by Confederate General Forrest's cavalry, in "Forrest's First Raid."
141877138thAfter two paycuts, Baltimore & Ohio Railroad workers walk off the job during "the Summer of Strikes."
141892123rdThe violent Homestead Strikes in Pennsylvania make front page news in New York.
151862153rdThe Confederate ironclad Arkansas fiercely attacks Farraguts fleet at Vicksburg, then steams away pursued only by the USS Essex
161787228thThe Constitutional Congress plans for a "lower" House, to be determined by state population (the future House of Representatives).
161862153rdDavid Glasgow Farragut becomes the first rear admiral in the U.S. Navy.
171862153rdLincoln approves the Confiscation Act, freeing all fugitive Confederate slaves forever, in a great step toward emancipation.
171867148thThe Harvard School of Dental Medicine, the first dental school in the U.S., is established.
17199718thThe Woolworth Corporation closes its last 400 five-and-dime stores after 117 years as a chain.
181872143rdGreat Britain introduces the concept of voting by secret ballot.
18192788thTy Cobb makes his 4,000th career hit.
18194768thTruman signs Presidential Succession Act to make the Speaker of the House and the Senate president next in line after the Vice President.
18196253rdCongress votes to preserve the Manhattan birthplace of Theodore Roosevelt, as well as Sagamore Hill, his Long Island, NY, estate.
191817198thMary Ann Ball Bickerdyke, tireless Civil War nurse, botanic physician, hospital administrator and pension attorney, is born.
19197243rdParis peace talks resume between the U.S. and North Vietnam, with Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho.
20191798thThe U.S. draft lottery goes into operation in World War I.
20193778thGuglielmo Marconi, Italian physicist and inventor of the wireless telegraph, dies.
211862153rdFormer president Martin Van Buren, called "Blue Whiskey Van" for his heavy drinking, slips into a coma.
211877138thThe Baltimore railroad Strike turns bloody after workers' wages were cut for the third time in three years.
221862153rdPres. Lincoln tells his cabinet and advisors that he'll soon make an emancipation proclamation to free all slaves.
22193778thPres. Franklin Roosevelt's "court-packing" strategy to protect the NLRA is rejected by the U.S. Senate.
22198728thSoviet leader Gorbachev agrees to a ban on intermediate-range nuclear missiles.
231862153rdLincoln appoints Gen. Henry Halleck, "Old Brains," general-in-chief of the Union Army.
231877138thMass meeting of workers supporting the rail strikers becomes violent when they turn their rage on the Chinese, who work for lower wages.
23193778thOrson Welles's first radio drama, based on Hugo's "Les Miserables," is broadcast on his new "Mercury Theater" program.
241567448thMary Stuart, Queen of Scots, is forced to abdicate the throne in favor of her one-year-old son, who will become King James VI.
241802213rdAlexandre Dumas the Elder, author of "The Three Musketeers," "The Count of Monte Cristo," and many other bestsellers, is born.
241847168thBrigham Young, early Mormon leader, arrives with his followers at the Great Salt Lake in Utah, after 17 months of travel.
241862153rdMartin van Buren, 8th President of the U.S., dies.
251832183rdThe first railroad accident in U.S. history occurs on the Granite Railway, near Quincy, MA.
251862153rdUnion Gen. Beroth Eggleston is captured by Confederates, but will survive to become a prominent Mississippi Carpetbagger.
251897118thJack London sails for the Klondike Gold Rush, where he will write "The Call of the Wild."
261847168thThe Republic of Liberia becomes the first African colony to declare its independence.
26194768thPres. Truman signs the National Security Act, creating the Department of Defense, the CIA, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
27196748thIn the wake of the Watts riots and other urban rioting, Pres. Johnson appoints the Kerner Commission to study the cause of violence.
28193283rd"Bonus Marchers" (WWI veterans) are evicted from Washington DC by Gen. MacArthur, obeying Pres. Hoover, though 2 veterans are killed.
291862153rdBelle Boyd, Confederate spy who reported to Stonewall Jackson, is captured and jailed in Old Capitol Prison
29193283rdWhen Hoover orders MacArthur and Eisenhower to use tanks and tear gas, the final veterans from the "Bonus Army" flee Washington.
30194273rdPres. Franklin Roosevelt signs a bill creating the WAVES or "Women Accepted for Emergency Service" in the Navy.
30195263rd"The Guiding Light," a popular radio show, premieres on television as a "soap opera."
311777238thThe Marquis de Lafayette, a 19-year-old French nobleman, becomes a major-general in the Continental Army, but without pay.
311792223rdThe first federal government building's cornerstone is laid at the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia.
31193283rdApache scout Charles Martine, who helped obtain Geronimo's surrender, dies on a reservation, as Gen. Miles never kept his promises.