Anniversaries

To illustrate the depth one can access in our collections, we have compiled relevant archival imagery to frame a diverse cultural, political and chronological retrospective of noteworthy anniversaries. Be sure to bookmark this section as the calendar is a work in progress and will continue to expand.

JulyYearAnniversaryEvent
11847167thThe U.S. Post Office issues its first stamps.
11862152ndAt the Battle of Malvern Hill, the last of the Seven Days' battles, Union artillery repulses Confederate attackers
11862152ndThe Union gunboats Galena, Monitor, and Mahaska shell the Confederates at Harrison's Landing, on the James River.
11862152ndThe Bureau of Internal Revenue is established by Congress.
11867147thCanada wins its independence and becomes a "self-governing dominion" of Great Britain.
1199717thHong Kong reverts to Chinese rule after 156 years as a British colony.
21777237thVermont becomes the first U.S. colony to abolish slavery, nearly 100 years before the federal government.
21857157thNew York City's first elevated railroad begins operation
21887127th"Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper" welcomes immigrants to "The Land of Freedom."
2194767thThe Soviet Union rejects help from the Marshall Plan.
2197242nd"The New York Times" admires Pres. Nixon for his trips to the Soviet Union and China
2199222ndThe Chevrolet company celebrates the sale of one million Corvettes.
3195757thNikita Khruschev takes control in the Soviet Union after years of jockeying for power.
3196252ndJackie Robinson becomes the first African-American to be inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.
41802212ndThe new U.S. Military Academy opens at West Point, New York.
41817197thConstruction begins on the Erie Canal, which will connect the Hudson River with Lake Erie.
41832182nd"America" ("My Country 'Tis of Thee"), by Samuel F. Smith, is sung in public for the first time, on the 4th of July at Boston's Park St. Church.
41872142ndCalvin Coolidge, 30th president of the United States, is born in Plymouth, Vermont.
51797217thGeorge Washington writes a letter to help Lund Washington secure passage for two sheep on a sailing vessel.
51902112ndHenry Cabot Lodge, U.S. politician and diplomat, is born.
61832182ndMaximilian, an Austrian archduke who will become Emperor of Mexico, is born in Vienna.
61862152ndSamuel Clemens begins as a reporter in Virginia City, Nevada, using the name "Mark Twain."
61892122ndAt the Homestead Steel Company, owned by Andrew Carnegie, 300 Pinkerton detectives clash with striking workers.
81777237thVermont is the first American colony to abolish slavery.
81822192ndPercy Bysshe Shelley, a British Romantic poet and husband of writer Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, dies.
8192292ndYoung Louis Armstrong leaves the Jim Crow laws of New Orleans, his hometown, to head north to Chicago.
8193282ndThe U.S. stock market falls to its lowest point during the Depression
91777237thNew York State elects Revolutionary War Gen. George Clinton (uncle of Dewitt Clinton) to be its first governor.
91877137thWimbledon's "All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club" organizes the first Wimbledon tennis tournament.
91892122ndA showdown between steel workers and 7,000 Pennsylvania troops turns violent at the Homestead Steel plant, owned by Andrew Carnegie.
9194767thEisenhower makes a female soldier a lieutenant colonel and the first woman to hold permanent military rank in the U.S.
101832182ndPres. Andrew Jackson vetoes legislation to renew the charter of the nation's corrupt Second Bank.
101867147thFinley Peter Dunne, journalist and satirist who created the Mr. Dooley columns, is born.
111767247thJohn Quincy Adams, 6th president of the U.S., is born in Braintree (now Quincy), Massachusetts.
111782232ndThe British evacuate Savannah, Georgia, to flee to Charleston, following Lord Cornwallis's surrender to George Washington at Yorktown, VA.
11193777thGeorge Gershwin, a U.S. composer of popular music, dies.
11197737thDr. Martin Luther King, Jr., is posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, for his efforts for civil rights.
121817197thHenry David Thoreau, U.S. essayist and philosopher, is born.
121862152ndDuring the Civil War, Congress authorizes the Medal of Honor for wartime service.
121912102ndThe first foreign film in the U.S., "Queen Elizabeth," starring Sarah Bernhardt, premieres.
131787227thCongress enacts the Northwest Ordinance to create a policy for settling the Northwest Territory, as proposed by Thomas Jefferson 3 years prior.
131837177thQueen Victoria, only eighteen years old, is the first British sovereign to move into London's Buckingham Palace.
131862152ndUnion General Crittenden and his garrison are captured by Confederate General Forrest's cavalry, in "Forrest's First Raid."
141877137thAfter two paycuts, Baltimore & Ohio Railroad workers walk off the job during "the Summer of Strikes."
141892122ndThe violent Homestead Strikes in Pennsylvania make front page news in New York.
151862152ndThe Confederate ironclad Arkansas fiercely attacks Farraguts fleet at Vicksburg, then steams away pursued only by the USS Essex
161787227thThe Constitutional Congress plans for a "lower" House, to be determined by state population (the future House of Representatives).
161862152ndDavid Glasgow Farragut becomes the first rear admiral in the U.S. Navy.
171862152ndLincoln approves the Confiscation Act, freeing all fugitive Confederate slaves forever, in a great step toward emancipation.
171867147thThe Harvard School of Dental Medicine, the first dental school in the U.S., is established.
17199717thThe Woolworth Corporation closes its last 400 five-and-dime stores after 117 years as a chain.
181872142ndGreat Britain introduces the concept of voting by secret ballot.
18192787thTy Cobb makes his 4,000th career hit.
18194767thTruman signs Presidential Succession Act to make the Speaker of the House and the Senate president next in line after the Vice President.
18196252ndCongress votes to preserve the Manhattan birthplace of Theodore Roosevelt, as well as Sagamore Hill, his Long Island, NY, estate.
191817197thMary Ann Ball Bickerdyke, tireless Civil War nurse, botanic physician, hospital administrator and pension attorney, is born.
19197242ndParis peace talks resume between the U.S. and North Vietnam, with Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho.
20191797thThe U.S. draft lottery goes into operation in World War I.
20193777thGuglielmo Marconi, Italian physicist and inventor of the wireless telegraph, dies.
211862152ndFormer president Martin Van Buren, called "Blue Whiskey Van" for his heavy drinking, slips into a coma.
211877137thThe Baltimore railroad Strike turns bloody after workers' wages were cut for the third time in three years.
221862152ndPres. Lincoln tells his cabinet and advisors that he'll soon make an emancipation proclamation to free all slaves.
22193777thPres. Franklin Roosevelt's "court-packing" strategy to protect the NLRA is rejected by the U.S. Senate.
22198727thSoviet leader Gorbachev agrees to a ban on intermediate-range nuclear missiles.
231862152ndLincoln appoints Gen. Henry Halleck, "Old Brains," general-in-chief of the Union Army.
231877137thMass meeting of workers supporting the rail strikers becomes violent when they turn their rage on the Chinese, who work for lower wages.
23193777thOrson Welles's first radio drama, based on Hugo's "Les Miserables," is broadcast on his new "Mercury Theater" program.
241567447thMary Stuart, Queen of Scots, is forced to abdicate the throne in favor of her one-year-old son, who will become King James VI.
241802212ndAlexandre Dumas the Elder, author of "The Three Musketeers," "The Count of Monte Cristo," and many other bestsellers, is born.
241847167thBrigham Young, early Mormon leader, arrives with his followers at the Great Salt Lake in Utah, after 17 months of travel.
241862152ndMartin van Buren, 8th President of the U.S., dies.
251832182ndThe first railroad accident in U.S. history occurs on the Granite Railway, near Quincy, MA.
251862152ndUnion Gen. Beroth Eggleston is captured by Confederates, but will survive to become a prominent Mississippi Carpetbagger.
251897117thJack London sails for the Klondike Gold Rush, where he will write "The Call of the Wild."
261847167thThe Republic of Liberia becomes the first African colony to declare its independence.
26194767thPres. Truman signs the National Security Act, creating the Department of Defense, the CIA, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
27196747thIn the wake of the Watts riots and other urban rioting, Pres. Johnson appoints the Kerner Commission to study the cause of violence.
28193282nd"Bonus Marchers" (WWI veterans) are evicted from Washington DC by Gen. MacArthur, obeying Pres. Hoover, though 2 veterans are killed.
291862152ndBelle Boyd, Confederate spy who reported to Stonewall Jackson, is captured and jailed in Old Capitol Prison
29193282ndWhen Hoover orders MacArthur and Eisenhower to use tanks and tear gas, the final veterans from the "Bonus Army" flee Washington.
30194272ndPres. Franklin Roosevelt signs a bill creating the WAVES or "Women Accepted for Emergency Service" in the Navy.
30195262nd"The Guiding Light," a popular radio show, premieres on television as a "soap opera."
311777237thThe Marquis de Lafayette, a 19-year-old French nobleman, becomes a major-general in the Continental Army, but without pay.
311792222ndThe first federal government building's cornerstone is laid at the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia.
31193282ndApache scout Charles Martine, who helped obtain Geronimo's surrender, dies on a reservation, as Gen. Miles never kept his promises.