Anniversaries

To illustrate the depth one can access in our collections, we have compiled relevant archival imagery to frame a diverse cultural, political and chronological retrospective of noteworthy anniversaries. Be sure to bookmark this section as the calendar is a work in progress and will continue to expand.

AugustYearAnniversaryEvent
11852162ndSan Francisco Methodists open the first black church in the U.S. - Zion Methodist.
11867147thAfrican Americans vote for the first time in a southern state.
1194272ndJerry Garcia, rock and roll musician from the Grateful Dead, is born.
21832182ndChief Black Hawk is defeated in Iowa by the U.S. Army, ending the Black Hawk War.
21832182ndCaptain Abraham Lincoln belongs to 1,300 state militia who defeat the Sac and Fox Indians in Illinois.
21887127thRowell Hodge patents spur barbed wire, which begins the end of the open range on the U.S. frontier.
31492522ndHalf an hour before sunrise, Christopher Columbus sets sail from Palos, Spain, heading for the "Indies," in the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria
31852162ndHarvard beats Yale by 4 lengths in the first U.S. intercollegiate rowing race, before a crowd that includes Gen. Franklin Pierce, future president.
3196747thLBJ announces he will send 45,000 more soldiers to Vietnam.
41792222ndPercy Bysshe Shelley, British poet who will marry writer Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, is born.
41862152ndDue to heavy war expenses, the U.S. collects its first official income tax, with the Internal Revenue Act of 1862, designed by Justin Morrill.
4194272ndBritain's Prime Minister Winston Churchill arrives in Cairo for international meetings about the war.
5196252ndMarilyn Monroe is found dead in her home, apparently of an accidental drug overdose.
5200212ndThe gun turret of the Civil War ironclad USS Monitor is raised from the ocean floor.
61787227thThe first draft of the Constitution is debated in Philadelphia, the nation's capital, by the Constitutional Convention.
61862152ndWhen the Confederate ironclad "Arkansas" runs aground, its crew blows up the newly made ship to prevent its capture by the USS Essex.
71742272ndNathanael Greene, American Revolutionary War general, is born to Quaker parents.
71782232ndGeorge Washington creates the Purple Heart Award, soon forgotten but reinstated by Gen. MacArthur in 1932.
71912102ndTeddy Roosevelt is nominated the Bull Moose Party presidential candidate, opposing William Taft (R) and Woodrow Wilson (D).
8194272ndSix Nazi saboteurs, convicted by a military tribunal authorized by FDR, are executed by electrocution in Washington, DC.
8197242ndFirst Lady Pat Nixon asks actress Jane Fonda to give up her activism against the war in Vietnam.
91862152ndAt the Battle of Ced Mountain, Confederates Stonewall Jackson and Ambrose Hill narrowly beat Union generals Pope and Banks.
91877137thIn the Battle of Big Hole, Col. John Gibbon attacks the sleeping band of Nez Perce who are attempting to flee to Canada.
91902112ndAlbert Edward, Prince of Wales, is crowned England's King Edward VII, upon the death of his mother Queen Victoria.
10196252ndSilver, gold's rival throughout history, gets more precious as its price climbs to $1.08, the highest since the start of the century.
10197242ndNorth Vietnamese forces attempt to cut off Saigon.
111807207thDavid Atchison, proslavery senator from Missouri and rival of antislavery Missouri Sen. Thomas H. Benton, born.
11196747thU.S. pilots are cleared to bomb Hanoi-Haiphong area.
121827187thWilliam Blake, British poet and painter, dies.
121862152ndConfederate general and raider John Hunt Morgan captures a Federal garrison at Gallatin, cutting off supplies to Union Gen. Don Carlos Buell.
121877137thThomas Edison writes down the fundamentals of the phonograph and gives the instructions to his assistant.
131732282nd"Zaire," a tragedy by French Enlightenment thinker Voltaire, premieres in Paris, after Voltaire's return from exile.
131792222ndAfter storming the Tuileries Palace, French revolutionaries imprison their queen, Marie Antoinette, preparing for the guillotine.
13193282ndHitler refuses Paul von Hindenburg's offer of the position opf vice-chancellor of Germany and demands to become chancellor.
141842172ndThe second Seminole War, in which Zachary Taylor uses bloodhounds to attack the Indians - ends as the Seminoles are removed from Florida.
141862152ndConfederate Gen. E. K. Smith begins the invasion of Kentucky (a Northern state), to pull Union Gen. D. C. Buell away from Tennessee.
141862152ndAt the White House, Lincoln receives 5 free black clergymen, the first African American group to meet with a U.S. president on policy issues.
14194272ndGen. Eisenhower is named commander for the invasion of North Africa by the Combined Chiefs of Staff.
14194767thIndia is granted independence from the British Commonwealth.
151877137thThomas Edison gains sudden fame by making the first ever phonograph recording, reciting "Mary Had a Little Lamb."
151892122ndBritish Prime minister Gladstone, a constant thorn in the side of Disraeli and Queen Victoria, forms his 4th and final government.
161812202ndGen. William Hull surrenders Fort Detroit to the British without a fight, for which he's denounced by Lewis Cass, but saved from execution by Pres. Madison.
16196747thPres. Lyndon Johnson's Tonkin Gulf Resolution is challenged by Sen. Fulbright, who opposes LBJ's escalation of the Vietnam War.
16197737thElvis Presley, rock and roll singer, dies as a result of his barbiturate addiction.
171862152ndDaring General J. E. B. Stuart receives command of all cavalry of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia.
171862152ndThe Dakota Uprising begins in Minnesota, where the Dakota face starvation, and John Pope is sent to put it down.
171877137thA teenager called Billy the Kid commits his first murder, shooting blacksmith Frank Cahill in Arizona.
17196252ndEast German troops kill 18-year-old Peter Fechter as he tries to cross the Berlin Wall, triggering widespread violence.
181807207thThe first workable U.S. steamboat, Robert Fulton's "Clermont," starts its maiden voyage from New York City up the Hudson River.
181862152ndGen. "Jeb" Stuart's famous plumed hat is captured by Union cavalrymen in an embarassing early morning surprise attack.
191812202ndThe USS Constitution, "Old Ironsides," defeats the British ship HMS Guerriere near Nova Scotia in the War of 1812.
191862152ndThe Santee of Minnesota, under Chief Little Crow, bypass Fort Ridgely and attack white settlers.
19197242ndDemocratic presidential candidate Sen. George McGovern attacks Nixon's Vietnam policy.
201667347thBritish poet John Milton publishes "Paradise Lost," his epic about Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden.
201862152ndHorace Greeley's "Prayer of Twenty Millions" attacks Lincoln for his lenience with Northern slaveholders and demands emancipation.
201862152ndThe National Labor Union unsuccessfully calls on Congress for an 8-hour workday (which won't happen until FDR is president).
21197242ndThe first hot air balloon flight over the Alps is accomplished by Donald Cameron.
21198727thThe Dow peaks at 2772.4 points after a record-breaking 6 years, but Wall Street is soon engulfed in scandal.
221862152ndPres. Lincoln replies to Horace Greeley's fiery abolitionist editorial, "The Prayer of Twenty Million."
22196252ndPres. Kennedy reports a stalemate in Vietnam, as the numbers of Viet Cong grow despite South Vietnamese victories.
231857157thThe Stock Market of 1857 ends an economic boom, plunging Eastern cities into unemployment and hunger.
231862152ndAt Big Hill, in the Confederate invasion of Kentucky, Union Gen. Nelson fails to repel Gen. Kirby Smith's invading troops.
241662352ndWhen Cromwell's reign ends, the Act of Uniformity reinstates Episcopalian rule and the Book of Common Prayer.
241787227thWolfgang Amdeus Mozart completes his Violin Sonata in A Major.
241912102ndThe District of Alaska becomes Alaska Territory and is incorporated in the U.S.
24193282ndAmelia Earhart becomes the first woman to fly nonstop across the U.S., which she does in just over 19 hours.
25196747thSecretary of Defense Robert McNamara concedes that the bombing of Vietnam is not succeeding.
261847167thLiberia is proclaimed an independent republic.
261862152ndThe 2nd Bull Run Campaign begins as Fitzhugh Lee's men capture Manassas, looting and destroying Gen. Pope's supply depot.
26195757thThe USSR announces it has tested an IBM and JFK accuses Pres. Eisenhower of falling behind in the arms race.
27194272ndTransport No. 24 departs from Paris deporting French Jews to Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Nazi Germany.
27195262ndMcCarthyism dominates U.S. politics as the presidential race between Dwight Eisenhower and Adlai Stevenson heats up.
281862152ndAfter 2 days scouring Manassas for Stonewall Jackson, Pope is suddenly attacked by Jackson's men, who've been hiding in the woods.
28191797thTen suffragettes are arrested for picketing Pres. Wilson in front of the White House.
28196747thSen. Mike Mansfield presents the Senate with a proposal to bring a Vietnam peace plan before the United Nations.
28197242ndPres. Nixon, campaigning for re-election, announces that the military draft will end by July of 1973.
291862152ndLee delivers a stunning blow to Pope at 2nd Bull Run, where Union troops are decimated.
291862152ndMaurice Maeterlinck, Belgian Nobel Prize winning poet and playwright, is born.
291877137thBrigham Young, an early Mormon leader, dies in Utah.
29196252ndU.S. poet Robert Frost embarks on a goodwill tour of the USSR.
301862152ndAt the Battle of Richmond, KY, Gen. Wright's inexperienced Union troops suffer complete defeat at the hands of E. Kirby Smith.
30196747thThurgood Marshall is conformed by the U.S. Senate to become a Supreme Court Justice, the first African American to do so.
311887127thThomas Edison patents his "Kinetoscope" or "Kinetograph."
31196747thCriticizing Robert McNamara, a Senate committee demands more bombing of N. Vietnam and LBJ yields to the "Hawks."