Mary Stuart (1542-1567)

Mary I of Scotland, also known as Mary Queen of Scots, ruled Scotland from 1542 to 1567. Daughter of James V of Scotland, Mary became queen at the age of six days. She grew up at the French court and married Francis II of France in 1558. A widow in 1560, Mary, a devout Catholic, returned to Scotland where her complex rivalry with Elizabeth I, Queen of England (a Protestant), began. After two unwise marriages, Mary was arrested by the Scots. In 1586 she escaped her prison and fled to England, where Elizabeth I imprisoned her. Elizabeth, convinced by rumors that Mary wanted to murder her, ordered Mary Stuart beheaded in 1587. It took eighteen gruesome blows to chop off her head, because the executioner was drunk. This drawing of the young Mary is by an unidentified artist.

1870 circa 15 years
Original Format:
Carte de Visite
Earles' Galleries (Philadelphia)
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