Ernestine Polowsky Rose (1810-1892)

Ernestine Louise Polowsky was born in Poland. Her mother died when she was a child, and she was reared by her father, a rabbi. Polowsky had severe differences with him about her faith, and about a marriage he had arranged for her. Consequently, she moved to England. Polowsky supported herself by making perfumed paper. Helped by the utopian Robert Owen (1771-1858), she began to speak publicly, and founded the "Association of All Classes of All Nations," an early human rights group. Polowsky married William Rose, an Englishman and admirer of Robert Owen. Together they emigrated to America in 1836, and settled in New York City, where they ran a shop. Ernestine Rose supported abolition, collected signatures for petitions for women's rights, wrote articles, continued with public speaking, and collaborated with Susan B. Anthony. She is the author of "Defense of Atheism ."

1875 circa 15 years
Original Format:
Carte de Visite
Elliott & Fry (London)
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